TITLE: Aggression: Its Causes, Consequences, & Control (1993)
AUTHOR: Leonard Berkowitz
NOTES (TONS OF DATA beyond murder): Facts involving murder in the US… most murders: (1) are the result of altercations that grew out of domestic quarrels, arguments over money, or jealousy; (2) are 1-on-1 incidents involving a single killing; (3) involve male murderers (86% of cases) and male victims (70% of cases); (4) involve young offenders & victims (bet. 20-30 years old); (5) few murders (13%) involves strangers–approximately 87% of murders involve offenders and victims who knew each other (majority of cases involve friends and/or family members, 60% of victims had a “close” relationship with their murderer; (6) involve offenders with prior arrest records involving crimes against persons; (7) involve a poor/working class offender & victim; (8) occur on on weekends, most often on Saturday; (9) involve alcohol (66% of cases). PERHAPS MOST IMPORTANTLY, (8) victims aren’t nearly as passive & subordinate as routinely believed–A substantial degree of murders involve victims who played an “active” role in initiating violence that led to their death. Those killed are often the first to brandish a weapon or use force in 25% of cases.
The self defense claim is flawed (in the sense that most murders don’t involve strangers & that 25% of murders are initiated by the aggressive actions of the victim)