NOTES: This is an index of the total number of people killed by concealed carry killers. There have been 23 reported mass shootings by those legally authorized for concealed carry since 2007.
FINDINGS: There’s ample empirical evidence in support of enhanced regulation & oversight of licensed gun dealers, background checks for private sales, and purchaser licensing. (2) There are compelling case studies from Australia, Scotland, & Brazil that demonstrate effective policy responses to gun violence that have led to significant reductions in gun-related deaths
TITLE: Gun Violence Annual Cost: $12 billion (2013)
SOURCE: USA Today
AUTHOR: Kelly Kennedy
BITLY WEB STATS: https://bitly.com/10FhJJO+
NOTE: Gunshot wounds and deaths cost Americans at least $12 billion a year in court proceedings, insurance costs and hospitalizations paid for by government health programs; (2) medical care for a fatal shooting averages >$28K
TITLE: Protect Children, Not Guns: Gun Violence in the States, 2000-2010 (2013)
SOURCE: Children’s Defense Fund
WEB STATS: https://bitly.com/XJEop8+
FINDINGS: 32k+ youth deaths from gun violence since Columbine, Alaska (most deadly state for youth), Hawaii (least deadly state for youth).
NOTES: Lots of state-by state-data on gun-based homicides/suicides for youth
TITLE: At the ER, Bearing Witness to Gun Violence (2013)
AUTHOR: David Newman
NOTES: Appeal from ER physician & military veteran to take action on gun violence as a public health issue. Personal anecdotes. References to research showing dangers of having a gun in the home.
NOTES: Outlines rationale for requiring liability insurance for gun owners. Similar to auto insurance, rate would vary based on type of gun, age of owner, etc. Shifts burden of “regulation” & background checks to insurance industry, which is very good at risk analysis, & more efficient than government.
TITLE: No, Really, Regulate the Bullets (2012)
SOURCE: The Atlantic
AUTHOR(S): Philip Bump
WEB STATS: https://bitly.com/12uHujs+
NOTES: Highlights number of guns already in circulation, plus growing ability to “3-D print” manufacture guns, and 2nd amendment protection of right to bear arms. Argues that regulating bullets is a logical way to reduce gun violence: limiting bullet supply doesn’t infringe the Constitutional right, and avoids problem of securing or reducing number of guns in circulation.
TITLE: Chart: The U.S. has far more gun-related killings than any other developed country (2012)
SOURCE: Washington Post
AUTHOR: Max Fisher
TITLE: Street conflict mediation to prevent youth violence: Conflict characteristics and outcomes (2012)
SOURCE: Injury Prevention
AUTHOR(S): Jennifer M. Whitehill, Daniel W. Webster, Jon S. Vernick
WEB STATS: https://bitly.com/12hQ0Bz+
RESEARCH QUESTION: What associations exist between conflict risk factors & successful nonviolent resolution/mediation strategies? (Action Research study in Baltimore totaling 158 cases of conflict that involved youth, gangs, weapons, etc.)
FINDINGS: nonviolent resolution for 65% of mediated conflicts; an additional 23% were at least temporarily resolved without violence.
TITLE: Reducing Gun Violence: Results from an Intervention in East Los Angeles (2010)
WEB STATS: http://bit.ly/VF4Y3W+
AUTHORS: Tita, G., Riley, K. J., Ridgeway, G., Grammich, C. A., Abrahamse, A. F., Greenwood, P. W.
FIELD: Political Science
NOTES: Gun control works! After Operation Ceasefire launched in 1996, youth homicides fell by 2/3rds in Boston. Policy was tested for applicability by RAND researchers in East LA & found to be effective in reducing violent crime in targeted and surrounding communities.
TITLE: State homicide victimization rates in the US in relation to survey measures of household gun ownership (2007)
SOURCE: Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence
AUTHOR(S): Miller M, Hemenway D, Azrael D.
FINDINGS: Across states, more guns = more homicide, household firearms are a direct & indirect source of firearms used to kill Americans both in their homes & on their streets
TITLE: Firearm availability & homicide: A review of the literature (2004)
SOURCE: Aggression and Violent Behavior, 9(4), pp. 417-440.
AUTHOR(S): Lisa M. Hepburn ; David Hemenway
BITLY WEB STATS: https://bitly.com/16xod6A+
FINDINGS: (1) Where there are more guns there is more homicide; (2) males commit approximately 90% of all homicides & representing 75% of the victims; (3) households with firearms are at higher risk for homicide, particularly firearm homicide.
TITLE: Firearm availability & homicide rates across 26 high-income countries (2000).
BITLY WEB STATS: http://bit.ly/11WxSlb+
AUTHOR(S): David Hemenway & Matthew Miller
FINDINGS: Nations offering easiest access to guns also have most gun violence. Among developed nations, the United States has the highest rate of civilian gun ownership, & the highest homicide rate. There’s a strong & statistically significant association between gun availability & homicide rates; where guns are more available, there are more homicides.
TITLE: I am the NRA: an analysis of a national random sample of gun owners (1993)
SOURCE: Violence & Victims, 8(4), pp. 367-385
AUTHOR(S): Weil DS, Hemenway D.
FINDINGS: NRA members support many regulatory proposals… (1) a majority of both NRA members favored a waiting period for the purchase of a handgun (77%) and mandatory registration for handguns (59%).
NOTES: Also see related study, “A response to Kleck (NRA). Violence & Victims “(1993)
TITLE: Aggression: Its Causes, Consequences, & Control (1993)
AUTHOR: Leonard Berkowitz
NOTES (TONS OF DATA beyond murder): Facts involving murder in the US… most murders: (1) are the result of altercations that grew out of domestic quarrels, arguments over money, or jealousy; (2) are 1-on-1 incidents involving a single killing; (3) involve male murderers (86% of cases) and male victims (70% of cases); (4) involve young offenders & victims (bet. 20-30 years old); (5) few murders (13%) involves strangers–approximately 87% of murders involve offenders and victims who knew each other (majority of cases involve friends and/or family members, 60% of victims had a “close” relationship with their murderer; (6) involve offenders with prior arrest records involving crimes against persons; (7) involve a poor/working class offender & victim; (8) occur on on weekends, most often on Saturday; (9) involve alcohol (66% of cases). PERHAPS MOST IMPORTANTLY, (8) victims aren’t nearly as passive & subordinate as routinely believed–A substantial degree of murders involve victims who played an “active” role in initiating violence that led to their death. Those killed are often the first to brandish a weapon or use force in 25% of cases.
The self defense claim is flawed (in the sense that most murders don’t involve strangers & that 25% of murders are initiated by the aggressive actions of the victim)